Is Galactosylceramide a sphingolipid?
Sphingolipid Catabolism β-Galactosidase catalyzes the degradation of galactosylceramide to galactose and ceramide within the lysosome.
Do NKT cells express CD8?
An examination of NKT cell subsets in CD1d−/− mice revealed the CD1d-independent NKT cell subset; approximately 50% of the cells therein express CD816. This CD8-expressing CD1d-independent NKT cell subset has been referred to as “CD8+NKT cells” in some previous studies17,18,19.
How do I activate iNKT cells?
iNKT cells are activated by endogenous lipid antigens presented by DCs in the presence of pro-inflammatory cytokines22,23, which prompted us to investigate the presentation of endogenous antigens by stimulated CTLs via CD1d to activate iNKT cells.
What is the function of glucosylceramide?
Alterations in the level of glucosylceramide are noted in cells and tissues in response to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, skin disorders and cancer. Overall, upregulation of glucosylceramide offers cellular protection and primes certain cells for proliferation.
Are sphingolipids phospholipids?
Definition. Phospholipids refer to a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule, e.g. phosphatidylcholine, while sphingolipids refer to a class of compounds which are fatty acid derivatives of sphingosine and occur chiefly in the cell membranes of the brain and nervous tissue.
What are CD8 cells?
Definition. CD8-positive T cells are a critical subpopulation of MHC class I-restricted T cell and are mediators of adaptive immunity. They include cytotoxic T cells, which are important for killing cancerous or virally infected cells, and CD8-positive suppressor T cells, which restrain certain types of immune response …
Are natural killer cells CD8?
Cytotoxic T-lymphocytes co-express the T-cell receptor, CD3 and the MHC I restricted antigen CD8. Although total CD8 expression is often used to identify CD8(+) T-cells in blood, errors are associated with this method as some CD3 negative natural killer (NK)-cells are known to express CD8.
What is the killer cell?
A type of immune cell that has granules (small particles) with enzymes that can kill tumor cells or cells infected with a virus. A natural killer cell is a type of white blood cell. Also called NK cell and NK-LGL.
What is the difference between NK and NKT cells?
Overview. NK cells are large, non-phagocytic lymphoid cells that possess cytoplasmic granules containing perforin and granzymes. At the molecular level, NK cells are distinguished from NKT, B and T cells by their lack of expression of TCRs or BCRs and the germline configuration of their TCR and BCR genes.
Where is glucosylceramide found?
Glucosylceramide is taken up into BHK cells along the receptor- mediated endocytic pathway, with transferrin, and is found in peripheral early endosomes after 2 min of incubation at 37 °C (Fig. 1; Kok et al., 1989).
Is glucosylceramide a Glycosphingolipid?
In higher eukaryotes, glucosylceramide is the simplest member and precursor of a fascinating class of membrane lipids, the glycosphingolipids. These lipids display an astounding variation in their carbohydrate head groups, suggesting that glycosphingolipids serve specialized functions in recognition processes.
What are sphingolipids examples?
Sphingolipids attached to a glycan (or a carbohydrate) is referred to as glycosphingolipid. Examples are cerebrosides and gangliosides. Cerebrosides are glycosphingolipids found in the cell membranes of the neurons and the muscle cells. The cerebroside has a sphingosine core.
What is α-Galactosylceramide (α-GC)?
α-Galactosylceramide (α-GC or α-Galcer) is an adjuvant that has been used in experimental vaccines against several pathogens ( Galli et al., 2007 ). α-GC was the first NKT ligand discovered ( Kawano et al., 1997; Morita et al., 1995 ). It was found during a search for anticancer treatments at Kirin Pharmaceuticals.
What is the molecular formula of galactosylceramide?
Galactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0) PubChem CID. 53480652. Structure. Find Similar Structures. Molecular Formula. C40H77NO8. Synonyms. Galactosylceramide (d18:1/16:0)
What is the function of galactosylceramide synthase?
Galactosylceramide synthase is responsible for the synthesis of galactosylceramide and its sulfated derivative, sulfatide. Both of them are enriched in myelin.
What is galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase deficiency?
Galactosylceramide beta-galactosidase deficiency. A mode of inheritance that is observed for traits related to a gene encoded on one of the autosomes (i.e., the human chromosomes 1-22) in which a trait manifests in homozygotes. In the context of medical genetics, autosomal recessive disorders manifest in homozygotes…