## How does temperature affect isotope fractionation?

Temperature influences the equilibrium isotope fractionation because of the decreasing differences in the statistical mechanical properties of isotopologues as temperature increases (Urey 1947).

How do oxygen isotopes become fractionated?

Physical processes, such as evaporation and condensation and thermal diffusion, may also result in significant fractionation. For example, oxygen-16 is enriched relative to the heavier oxygen isotopes in water evaporating from the sea.

How do you calculate fractionation factor?

The equilibrium fractionation factor a between liquid and vapor can be defined in two ways, which are mathematical inverses: a = Rl /Rv or a = Rl /Rv, where Rl and Rv are the isotopic ratios of the liquid and vapor, respectively.

### What is oxygen isotope fractionation?

Oxygen isotope ratio cycles are cyclical variations in the ratio of the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 18 to the abundance of oxygen with an atomic mass of 16 present in some substances, such as polar ice or calcite in ocean core samples, measured with the isotope fractionation.

How does isotope fractionation work?

Isotopic fractionations are related to bond strength. Thus, stronger bonds generally favor heavier isotopes. A difference in the bond strengths of complexes in a ligand exchange reaction thus results in isotopic fractionation.

What is fractionation rate?

Fractionation factor is defined as the ratio of isotopes in one phase to the other coexisting phase. In the CaCO3–H2O system, the fractionation factor is defined as: The fractionation factor is related to the equilibrium constant by: α = K 1 / n. where “n” is the number of atoms exchanged.

## Is oxygen-18 stable or unstable?

stable
While most oxgen atoms have a mass of 16 (8 protons and 8 neutrons), a small number of oxygen atoms have a mass of 18 (8 protons and 10 neutrons). Both of these isotopes are stable; they do not undergo radioactive decay. Water molecules (H2O) in the ocean may contain either isotope, oxygen 16 or oxygen 18.

How do you calculate isotopic fractionation?

The isotopic fractionation, ε, is defined as: ε = α − 1. This is usually a small number, hence is multiplied by 10 3 and is then expressed in per mil (‰). The isotopic fractionation is temperature dependent ( Urey, 1947 ).

What is the isotopic fractionation in an irreversible reaction?

Note that, if in an irreversible reaction, all the reactants are consumed to form a product, then no isotope effects and no fractionation will be observed in the final product. The isotopic fractionation, ε, is defined as: ε = α − 1.

### What is the difference between isotopic fractionation and equilibrium fractionation?

Isotopic fractionation is defined as the relative partitioning of the heavier and lighter isotopes between two coexisting phases in a natural system. Equilibrium fractionation is a special case of chemical equilibrium reaction in which there is no net reaction but an exchange of isotopes takes place, which affects the equilibrium constant.

What timescales were used in the study of isotopic fractionation?

The timescales of Berggren et al. (1995; Cenozoic), Gradstein et al. (1995; Mesozoic), and GSA (Paleozoic) were used. Thermal diffusion causes isotopic fractionation in the presence of temperature gradients (see Section ‘Diffusion ’).