What is the HPA axis in psychology?

short for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The HPA axis is a term used to represent the interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands; it plays an important role in the stress response.

What triggers the HPA axis?

CRH is the main regulating hormone of the HPA axis and is activated by stress. Glucocorticoids, such as cortisol, are the final effectors that negatively regulate the HPA axis.

What does the HPA axis release?

For the HPA axis, the anterior pituitary gland releases a hormone into the blood stream with the adrenal glands as the target organ. This hormone is called the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). ACTH is released by the pituitary gland and travels down to the adrenal glands above the kidneys.

What does HPA mean in medical terms?

The Hypothalamic–Pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis describes a complex set of positive and negative feedback influences between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal gland.

What organs are in the HPA axis?

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, or HPA axis as it is commonly called, describes the interaction between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are located just above the brainstem, while the adrenal glands are found on top of the kidneys.

What is the neuroendocrine stress response?

The neuroendocrine stress response has a central role in initiating renal injury during cardiac surgery through an increased release of arginine-vasopressin and activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the intrarenal and systemic renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

What hormone is released when a person is pregnant?

Human chorionic gonadotropin hormone (hCG). This hormone is only made during pregnancy. It is made almost exclusively in the placenta. HCG hormone levels found in the mother’s blood and urine rise a lot during the first trimester. They may play a part in the nausea and vomiting often linked to pregnancy.

What is metaphor?

English Language Learners Definition of metaphor : a word or phrase for one thing that is used to refer to another thing in order to show or suggest that they are similar : an object, activity, or idea that is used as a symbol of something else

Does lipocortin cross the blood–brain barrier?

Since lipocortin is a protein and, therefore, not expected to cross the blood–brain barrier, a peripheral site of action is suggested, further supporting the possibility that the source of PGE mediating fever may be peripheral rather than central.

What is the role of lipocortins in PLA2 inhibitors?

Lipocortins are PLA2 inhibitors, but their physiological activity is questionable. They are found in large quantities which argues against a regulatory role. They appear to interact with the substrate rather than the enzyme which means they may not be specific for the PG biosynthetic pathway.

What is a sustained metaphor?

Because it is used and developed over a longer section of text, a sustained metaphor can be a powerful literary device that provides strong, vivid imagery in the reader’s mind. This kind of metaphor is often found in songs and poetry. In a famous example from Shakespeare, Romeo compares Juliet to the sun over several lines.