What is x-efficiency theory?
X-Efficiency theory states that a greater amount of product market competition will pressure firm members to produce with more effort so that the firm is producing closer to their frontiers. Firms will as a result produce closer to their frontiers.
Who is propounder of x-efficiency theory?
The x-efficiency theory is a theory developed by Harvey Leibenstein (†1994). Generally spoken, x- inefficiency means the difference between the optimal efficient behavior of business in theory and the observed behavior in practice. These differences occur due to different factors.
Are oligopolies X efficient?
When markets are less than perfectly competitive, as in the case of oligopolies and monopolies, there is likely to be a loss of ‘X’ efficiency, with output not being maximised due to a lack of managerial motivation.
What is the theory of efficiency?
The theory of efficiency wages, also called the efficiency wage hypothesis, suggests that worker productivity has a positive relationship with pay. In other words, if you pay a worker more, he will work harder and produce more output than if you paid him the wage dictated by supply and demand.
What causes X inefficiency?
X Inefficiency occurs when a firm lacks the incentive to control costs. This causes the average cost of production to be higher than necessary. When there is this lack of incentives, the firm will not be technically efficient.
What theory did Harvey Leibenstein introduce?
Harvey Leibenstein is most famous for introducing the “x-efficiency” concept (1966), roughly a catch-all term for the notion that ideal technical efficiency is frustrated in reality by people and organizations, due to a variety of factors, such as institutional frictions, missing markets and lack of information.
What is Leibenstein’s gap filling theory?
According to Leibenstein, When an input is not used effectively the difference between the actual output and the maximum output attributable to that input is a measure of the degree of X-efficiency. Leibenstein identifies two main roles for the entrepreneur: (i) a gap filler and (ii) an input completer.
How do oligopolies cause market inefficiency?
Oligopoly cause market failure in the following ways; interdependence, firms acting under oligopolistic conditions are said to be interdependent which means they cannot act independently of each other, therefore actors have to initiate strategies in decision making to either compete or collude(overt,covert,tacit ).
Which of the following reasons is why oligopolies are inefficient?
For which of the following reason(s) are oligopolies inefficient? They may lack incentives to provide innovative products and high-quality service. Typically they do not produce at the minimum of their average cost curves. Barriers to entry can allow them to earn sustained profits over long periods of time.
How does the theory of efficiency wages explain above equilibrium wages?
How does the theory of efficiency wages explain above-equilibrium wages? Employers give their workers a higher wage in the hope that it will lead to increased productivity.
What is the meaning of inefficiency in English?
; lack of efficiency
Definition of ‘inefficiency’ 1. the quality or condition of being inefficient; lack of efficiency. 2. an instance of inefficiency. This work is riddled with inefficiencies.
What is Leibenstein gap filling theory?
What is Leibenstein’s X-efficiency theory?
Harvey Leibenstein, American economist, developed X-efficiency theory in the 1960s. He views entrepreneurs as gap-fillers and input complementors.
What is Leibenstein’s theory of entrepreneurship?
Leibenstein regards entrepreneurship as a creative response to X-efficiency. Other people’s lack of effort and the consequent inefficiency of the organizations that employ them, create opportunities for entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurial activities pose a competitive threat to inefficient organizations.
What is X-inefficiency in economics?
X-inefficiency is the difference between efficient behavior of firms assumed or implied by economic theory and their observed behavior in practice. It occurs when technical-efficiency is not being achieved due to a lack of competitive pressure. The concepts of x-inefficiency were introduced by Harvey Leibenstein
What did Leibenstein mean by X for unknown?
Economist Harvey Leibenstein challenged the belief that firms were always rational and called this anomaly “X” for unknown–or X-efficiency. Leibenstein introduced the human element, arguing that there could be degrees of efficiency, meaning that–at times–firms didn’t always maximize profits.