What is phosphoinositide pathway?

The phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is a crucial signal transduction system linking the activation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and oncogenes such as RAS to multiple essential cellular functions.

Where is phosphatidylinositol synthesized?

De novo PI synthesis takes place at the endoplasmic reticulum where phosphatidic acid (PA) is converted to PI in two enzymatic steps.

How are phosphoinositides involved in cell Signalling?

Phosphoinositides are universal signaling entities that regulate cell activities through direct interaction with membrane proteins (e.g., ion channels, GPCRs) or through membrane recruitment of cytosolic proteins containing domains that directly bind phosphoinositides, such as pleckstrin homology (PH), FYVE, WD40 …

Is IP3 a phosphoinositide?

The phosphoinositide pathway is operative in plants, IP3 is produced, and Ca2+ is abundant in plants, but the other second messengers, cAMP, cGMP, diacylglycerol, and phosphatidyl serine, and the protein kinases, A, G, and C, that they activate seem to be present only sporadically and in modest amounts.

Is phosphatidylinositol a phospholipid?

Phosphatidylinositols are a group of phospholipids which compose up to 10% of the lipid of eukaryotic cells. These lipids are the precursors for the water-soluble inositol phosphates, many of which are putative messenger molecules.

What is the primary intracellular function of Phosphatidylinositols?

Phosphoinositides are a family of minority acidic phospholipids in cell membranes. Their principal role is instructional: they interact with proteins.

Is phosphatidylinositol a phosphoinositide?

Phosphoinositides. Phosphorylated forms of phosphatidylinositol (PI) are called phosphoinositides and play important roles in lipid signaling, cell signaling and membrane trafficking.

What is the function of phosphoinositides?

Phosphoinositides have diverse functions – they are involved in membrane budding and fusion, cytoskeletal dynamics, control of nuclear function, and assembly of signaling proteins at membranes. They also regulate the activity of plasma membrane ion channels and transporters.

What are phosphoinositide lipid kinases?

Phosphoinositide lipid kinases (PIKS) catalyze the phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositols, which are important secondary messengers involved in signal transduction, cellular membrane remodeling, and vesicular trafficking.

What triggers phosphoinositide signaling?

This review focuses on some of the most intensively studied phosphoinositide signaling pathways initiated when growth factors, cytokines or insulin, and related hormones trigger the activation of one or more of the type I PI 3-kinases.

Why are there multiple phosphatidylinositol phosphate isomers?

Site-specific phosphorylation of phosphoinositides by lipid kinases results in the generation of multiple phosphatidylinositol phosphate isomers. These mono- or poly-phosphorylated isomers either can be further modified by additional enzymes or can directly modulate numerous cellular functions.