What is mean by seminal stains?
Seminal stains are generally found on the clothing, but may be present on the body of the victim or accused, on the bed clothes, site of offence, seat of motor car; on the floor or on the grass. Normal semen reference pH range is 7.2 to 7.8.
What are the reasons why both the Florence test and Barberio’s test are not universally accepted?
For various valid reasons, like non-specificity and lack of reproducibility, the florence and berberio’s tests have not been accepted universally.
What is the odor of seminal stains?
A pH of 8.0 or greater can be associated with infection of the prostate, seminal vesicle, or epididymis. Color: Thick, yellowish white, glairy, opalescent, secretion having a characteristic odor known as seminal odor. Texture: On touch, seminal stains are starchy.
How do you detect seminal stains?
The tests used to detect Seminal Stains are:
- Florence Test.
- Barberio Test.
- Acid Phosphatase Test.
- LDM Isoenzyme Method.
- Acid Phosphatase Isoenzyme Test.
- Creatinine in Phosphokinase.
- Ammonium Molybdate Test (Phosphorus)
- Semen Specific Glycoprotein (P30 ) Test.
What is the role of sperm in reproduction?
The sperm unites with (fertilizes) an ovum (egg) of the female to produce a new offspring. Mature sperm have two distinguishable parts, a head and a tail. The head of the sperm varies in shape for each animal species.
What is the positive result of Florence test?
Testing watery extracts of the organs of the genital tract gave interesting results. Extracts of testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle were strongly positive. While prostatic secretion alone always failed to react, watery extracts of the prostate were positive.
What of all sperm appear normal?
Typically, only around 4% to 10% of the sperm in a semen sample are normal, meaning that the vast majority don’t look perfect under the microscope. Sperm morphology is poorly understood, and it can be subjective. Scores can vary on the same semen sample, in the same lab, using the same scoring techniques.
What are the 3 parts of the sperm cell?
A sperm has three main parts:
- The head of the sperm contains the nucleus. The nucleus holds the DNA of the cell.
- The midpiece of the sperm is packed with mitochondria. Mitochondria are organelles in cells that produce energy.
- The tail of the sperm moves like a propeller, around and around.
Can all seminal stains be grouped?
Semen is grouped in the following systems: ABO, Lewis (Le), Gm, PGM, glyoxalase (GLO), and peptidase A (Pep A). Gm and Pep A have only been used to group casework seminal stains for a short time (Khalap, 1979, Parkin, 1979), so little information is available from casework as yet.
Does washing clothes remove DNA?
When it comes to child sexual abuse cases, researchers have found that DNA can be transferred innocently by the laundry even after clothes are supposed to be “clean.” A Canadian study discovered that when undergarments are washed with sheets containing bodily fluids, the undergarment too will have DNA on them.
What is phosphatase?
Definition of phosphatase. : an enzyme that accelerates the hydrolysis and synthesis of organic esters of phosphoric acid and the transfer of phosphate groups to other compounds:
What is phosphat (E +-ASE)?
n. Any of numerous enzymes that catalyze the removal of phosphate groups by hydrolysis of phosphate ester bonds. They act in the opposite manner to kinases and are important in metabolism and cell signaling. [ phosphat (e) + -ase .]
Where is acid phosphatase found in the body?
acid phosphatase. a lysosomal enzyme that hydrolyzes phosphate esters liberating phosphate, showing optimal activity at a pH between 3 and 6; found in erythrocytes, prostatic tissue, spleen, kidney and other tissues.
Why am I stumped on phosphatase 1?
— National Geographic, 29 June 2016 You’re stumped because of all the protein phosphatase 1 coursing through your brain. — Brendan I. Koerner, WIRED, 1 Aug. 2003