Does GLP-1 stimulate insulin secretion?

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; 7–36 amide), an incretin hormone secreted by intestinal L-cells in response to glucose and other ingested nutrients, induces insulin secretion via the GLP-1R in a glucose-regulated manner.

What are the phases of insulin secretion?

Abstract. Insulin is released from the pancreas in a biphasic manner in response to a square-wave increase in arterial glucose concentration. The first phase consists of a brief spike lasting approximately 10 min followed by the second phase, which reaches a plateau at 2-3 h.

Does GLP-1 inhibit insulin?

GLP-1 inhibits food intake, gastric emptying, and glucagon secretion and stimulates insulin secretion. Although the GLP-1 receptor is expressed in multiple tissues during murine development, a role for GLP-1 during embryonic development has not been established.

What is first phase insulin secretion?

This “first phase” of insulin secretion promotes peripheral utilization of the prandial nutrient load, suppresses hepatic glucose production, and limits postprandial glucose elevation. First-phase insulin secretion begins within 2 minutes of nutrient ingestion and continues for 10 to 15 minutes.

How do GLP-1 receptor agonists work?

The GLP-1RAs have been shown to significantly improve glycemic parameters and reduce body weight. These agents work by activating GLP-1 receptors in the pancreas, which leads to enhanced insulin release and reduced glucagon release-responses that are both glucose-dependent-with a consequent low risk for hypoglycemia.

Why is insulin released in two phases?

Rapid and sustained stimulation of beta-cells with glucose induces biphasic insulin secretion. The two phases appear to reflect a characteristic of stimulus-secretion coupling in each beta-cell rather than heterogeneity in the time-course of the response between beta-cells or islets.

What is the action of GLP-1?

The main actions of GLP-1 are to stimulate insulin secretion (i.e., to act as an incretin hormone) and to inhibit glucagon secretion, thereby contributing to limit postprandial glucose excursions.

What is cephalic phase insulin response?

The cephalic phase insulin secretion is defined as the initial release of insulin in response to food stimuli acting on receptors in the head and oropharynx (Berthoud, Trimble, Siegel, Bereiter, & Jeanrenaud, 1980; Powley, 1977).

What is insulin release?

Insulin secretion involves a sequence of events in β-cells that lead to fusion of secretory granules with the plasma membrane. Insulin is secreted primarily in response to glucose, while other nutrients such as free fatty acids and amino acids can augment glucose-induced insulin secretion.

Why is GLP-1 secreted?

The glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1) is primarily produced and secreted from enteroendocrine L-cells of the small intestine in response to nutrient stimuli. As an incretin, GLP-1 directly acts on the pancreatic β-cells to enhance glucose stimulation of insulin secretion.

Can GLP-1 be used to control insulin secretion?

Control of insulin secretion by GLP-1 Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut-derived peptides is central to the incretin response to ingesting nutriments. Analogues of GLP-1, and inhibitors of its breakdown, have found widespread clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesi …

When does GLP-1 secretion become robustly stimulated?

In humans, GLP-1 secretion in response to duodenal glucose delivery does not become robustly stimulated until the delivery rate overcomes the absorptive capacity of the duodenum, i.e. until such time as non-absorbed glucose reaches the jejunum and beyond.

What are the metabolic effects of GLP-1?

Among the numerous metabolic effects of GLP-1 are the glucose-dependent stimulation of insulin secretion, decrease of gastric emptying, inhibition of food intake, increase of natriuresis and diuresis, and modulation of rodent β-cell proliferation.

What is the role of glucagon-like peptide-1 in insulin secretion?

Stimulation of insulin secretion by glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and other gut-derived peptides is central to the incretin response to ingesting nutriments. Analogues of GLP-1, and inhibitors of its breakdown, have found widespread clinical use for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesi …