What is the process of gene regulation?
= Gene regulation is the process of turning genes on and off. During early development, cells begin to take on specific functions. Gene regulation ensures that the appropriate genes are expressed at the proper times. Gene regulation can also help an organism respond to its environment.
What is the role of the osteopontin?
Osteopontin (OPN) is a versatile protein that acts on various receptors which are associated with different signalling pathways implicated in cancer. OPN mediates critical processes for cancer progression such as immune response, cell adhesion and migration, and tumorigenesis.
How is a constitutive gene regulated?
Some genes are constitutive, or always “on,” regardless of environmental conditions. Such genes are among the most important elements of a cell’s genome, and they control the ability of DNA to replicate, express itself, and repair itself. The repressor or activator protein binds near its regulatory target: the gene.
What are the different stages of gene regulation Class 12?
In eukaryotes, gene regulation occurs at any of the following steps:
- Transcriptional level i.e. during the formation of the primary transcript.
- Processing level i.e. at the stage of splicing.
- During transport of mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
- Translational level.
What are Lac and Trp operons?
The lac operon responds to an inducer that causes the repressor to dissociate from the operator, derepressing the operon. The trp operon responds to a repressor protein that binds to two molecules of tryptophan. When the tryptophan is plentiful, this repressor-tryptophan complex binds to the trp operator.
What are Lac and trp operons?
What is constitutive gene?
Constitutive genes are those that are always active. Genes for ribosomes are an example. They are constantly being transcribed because ribosomes are constantly needed for protein synthesis. Inducible genes are those that have variable activity, depending on the needs of the cell.
What are the four levels at which gene expression is regulated in eukaryotes Class 12?
(i) Transcriptional level (formation of primary transcript), (ii) Processing level (regulation of splicing), (iii) Transport of mRNA from nucleus to the cytoplasm, (iv) Translation level.
What are the regulatory cells of the osteopontin gene?
Regulation of the osteopontin gene is incompletely understood. Different cell types may differ in their regulatory mechanisms of the OPN gene. OPN expression in bone predominantly occurs by osteoblasts and osteocyctes (bone-forming cells) as well as osteoclasts (bone-resorbing cells).
What is osteopontin?
Osteopontin is an extracellular structural protein and therefore an organic component of bone. Synonyms for this protein include sialoprotein I and 44K BPP (bone phosphoprotein).
Is osteopontin involved in bone remodeling in ankylosing spondylitis?
“Osteopontin might be involved in bone remodeling rather than in inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis”. Rheumatology. 47 (12): 1775–9. doi: 10.1093/rheumatology/ken385.
Is osteopontin a humoral factor?
Osteopontin (OPN) is one of the noncollagenous proteins present in bone matrix. The presence of OPN in various organs, including those with and without matrix, and also in plasma, suggests that this molecule could act both as a structural molecule and as a humoral factor, or cytokine.